Glossary of Key Terms

Internationally mindedness

An internationally minded person is open-minded about the common humanity of all people and accepts and respects other cultures and beliefs. The internationally minded person takes action through discussion and collaboration to help build a better and peaceful world.

  • Being open minded and respectful of other cultures and beliefs

Global mindedness

To explore new ideas and perspectives as well as humility to learn and willingness to work with people around the globe.

  • The ability to work with and learn from other people worldwide with differing values and beliefs

Learning outcomes.

Completion of CAS is based on student achievement of the seven CAS learning outcomes. Through their CAS portfolio, students provide the school with evidence demonstrating achievement of each learning outcome. Some learning outcomes may be achieved many times, while others may be achieved less frequently. In their CAS portfolio, students provide the school with evidence of having achieved each learning outcome at least once through their CAS programme.

  • There are 7 learning outcomes (see LO below) which are targets that students must show evidence of in their CAS portfolio (usually kept on Managbac). All outcomes must be reached at least once – but some are easier to show evidence of than others.

LO 1:

Identify own strengths and develop areas for growth

  • Students are able to see themselves as individuals with various skills and abilities, some more developed than others, and understand that they can make choices about how they wish to move forward.

LO: 2

Demonstrate that challenges have been undertaken, developing new skills in the process

  • A new challenge may be an unfamiliar experience or an extension of an existing one. The newly acquired or developed skills may be shown through experiences that the student has not previously undertaken or through increased expertise in an established area.

LO: 3

Demonstrate how to initiate and plan a CAS experience

  • Students can articulate the stages from conceiving an idea to executing a plan for a CAS experience or series of CAS experiences. This may be accomplished in collaboration with other participants. Students may show their knowledge and awareness by building on a previous experience, or by launching a new idea or process.


Show commitment to and perseverance in CAS experiences

  • Students demonstrate regular involvement and active engagement in CAS. At a minimum, this implies attending regularly and accepting a share of the responsibility for dealing with problems that arise in the course of activities.


Demonstrate the skills and recognize the benefits of working collaboratively

  • Students are able to identify, demonstrate and critically discuss the benefits and challenges of collaboration gained through CAS experiences. Collaboration can be shown in many different activities, such as team sports, playing music in a band, or helping in a kindergarten. At least one project, involving collaboration and the integration of at least two of creativity, action and service, is required.


Demonstrate engagement with issues of global significance

  • Students are able to identify and demonstrate their understanding of global issues, make responsible decisions, and take appropriate action in response to the issue either locally, nationally or internationally. Students may be involved in international projects but there are many global issues that can be acted upon locally or nationally (for example, environmental concerns, caring for the elderly).


Recognise and consider the ethics of choices and actions

  • Students show awareness of the consequences of choices and actions in planning and carrying out CAS experiences. Ethical decisions arise in almost any CAS activity (for example, on the sports field, in musical composition, in relationships with others involved in service activities). Evidence of thinking about ethical issues can be shown in various ways, including journal entries and conversations with CAS advisers.


Exploring and extending ideas leading to an original or interpretive product or performance.

  • Arts, and other experiences that involve creative thinking.


Physical exertion contributing to a healthy lifestyle

  • Any physical activity- individual or collective


Collaborative and reciprocal engagement with the community in response to an authentic need.

  • An unpaid and voluntary engagement in the community – this can be local or global but the need must be real.

CAS project

All CAS students undertake a CAS project involving teamwork that integrates one or more of the strands of creativity, activity and service. Duration is a minimum of one month. The project provides opportunities to develop and advance skills particularly related to collaboration and sustained relationships, and enables students to develop and refine plans in response to any problems that arise, and to reflect on their progress and outcomes.

  • A project done over a period of one month in a team of at least 3 people. The project must planned in accordance to the 5 stages of CAS (investigation, preparation, action, reflection and demonstration) and incorporate at least one of the 3 CAS strands


Collaborative experiences involve cooperation with others. These can be short term or longer term collaborations and are an important aspect of a CAS project.

  • Working together. Collaboration is a pivotal aspect of the CAS project and must be reflected upon.


Students are naturally members of several different communities (the school, the local area where they live, community of friends, ethnically or religiously defined groups, and so on). Some CAS experiences may quite properly involve CAS students within their own familiar community however they could also be involved with people from other less familiar communities that affords opportunities for personal and collective growth when possible.

  • A group of people in which the student chooses to engage/ interact. The less familiar, the more room there is for personal growth and more authentic ‘material’ on which to reflect upon.


“Global” infers having a significance or reference that extends beyond a local context or relates to the whole world. CAS students are encouraged to see the connections between their local experiences and a global context

  • Referring to the world as a whole. Students should try to make the link between their ‘experiences’ that they have in their ‘local’ community and the wider ‘global’ context.


An interview is a formal dialogue and exchange of information. During CAS, there are three formal documented interviews that students have with their CAS coordinator or adviser: at the beginning of the CAS programme, at the end of the first year and at the end of the CAS programme.

  • A formal chat with the CAS coordinator / CAS advisor which occurs 3 times during the 18 month CAS programme. The first interview (Oct yr 12) is to ensure the student knows what is expected of CAS, the second (Jun yr 12 ) to check on progress (and to flag up any problems) and the final (Mar yr 13) ensure all LO’s have been met and the portfolio has been completed.


Central to CAS, reflection is a process of considered exploration of personal thoughts (cognition) and feelings (affect) that informs students’ learning and growth by allowing students to explore ideas, skills, strengths, limitations and areas for further development and consider how they may use prior learning in new contexts. Reflection can occur in varied formal and informal ways.

  • ‘Looking back’, commenting and documenting personal thoughts and feelings following the completion of a CAS experience / project. Reflections are an integral part of CAS and they are a portfolio requirement to show evidence that the 7 LO’s have been achieved.

New roles or challenges

The phrase “new roles or challenges” refers to experiences that are new to the student or may extend their roles or responsibilities in experiences with which the student is already involved.

  • Any new position (via their choice of ‘experience’) that the student finds themselves / puts themselves in.


All CAS students are expected to assemble evidence of their involvement in CAS experiences, and their reflections upon them that show the learning outcomes have been achieved. A variety of forms are acceptable including but not limited to: blogs, written journals, artwork, music compositions, annotated photo diaries and audio or video diaries.

  • A collection of evidence whereby a student can prove their involvement in their CAS experiences and CAS project via their reflections and demonstrate that their learning outcomes have been achieved. A common place to ‘keep’ this portfolio is on Managebac

Reciprocal engagement

As students participate in service experiences, the aim is for recognition of an exchange of mutual benefit, or reciprocity that maintains dignity and respect for all involved.

  • Mutual benefit – most applicable to service experiences.

CAS Stages

The CAS stages of investigation, preparation, action, reflection and demonstration offer a helpful and supportive framework and continuum of process for CAS students as they consider what they would like to do in CAS, make plans, and carry out their ideas. The CAS stages are applicable (but not mandatory) to the three strands of creativity, activity, service and the CAS project.

  • 5 CAS stages (see below) that students should be familiar with (and show evidence of) when they plan their ‘experiences’ / project.

Stage 1: Investigation

Students identify their interests, skills and talents to be used in considering opportunities for CAS experiences, as well as areas for personal growth and development. Students investigate what they want to do and determine the purpose for their CAS experience. In the case of service, students identify a need they want to address

  • Identification of interests and skills and determination of purpose in relation to planning a CAS experience/ project

Stage 2: Preparation

Students clarify roles and responsibilities, develop a plan of actions to be taken, identify specified resources and timelines, and acquire any skills as needed to engage in the CAS experience.

  • Preparation of an ‘action plan’ prior to a CAS experience/ project

Stage 3: Action

Students implement their idea or plan. This often requires decision-making and problem solving. Students may work individually, with partners, or in groups.

  • Implementation of an action plan.

Stage 4: Reflection

Students describe what happened, express feelings, generate ideas, and raise questions. Reflection can occur at any time during CAS to further understanding, to assist with revising plans, to learn from the experience, and to make explicit connections between their growth, accomplishments, and the learning outcomes for personal awareness. Reflection may lead to new action.

  • ‘Looking back’, commenting and documenting personal thoughts and feelings following the completion of a CAS experience / project. Can lead to more action.

Stage 5: Demonstration

Students make explicit what and how they learned and what they have accomplished, for example, by sharing their CAS experience through their CAS portfolio or with others in an informal or formal manner. Through demonstration and communication, students solidify their understanding and evoke response from others.

  • Sharing with others what students have learned – this can be done (via CAS interviews or CAS presentations (formally / informally)


In CAS, there are three strands for experiences: creativity, activity and service.

  • An IB term which just means Creativity, Activity and Service


The term “sustained” in CAS refers to continuous or ongoing experiences, plans or actions that take place regularly over an extended period of time. Sustained CAS experiences enable students to show perseverance and commitment while providing opportunities for deeper understanding, ongoing planning, adaptability as needed and meaningful reflection.

  • Occurring and continuing over time. It is advised that CAS experiences should not occur as a ‘one off’ as a deeper understanding and a more meaningful connection (leading to deeper reflections) happen when they occur over a sustained time span.


A CAS experience is a specific event in which the student engages with one or more of the three CAS strands. A CAS experience can be a single event or may be an extended series of events.

  • Another IB term meaning a specific ‘event’ (individual or sustained) a student chooses to engage in– from either Creativity, Activity or Service (or a mix of the three).